"Life is not about what we know, but what we don't know, craving the unthinkable makes it so amazing, that is worth dying for." Doru Indrei
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Big Bang is the cosmological model that explains the initial conditions and the further development of the Univers. The term Big Bang generally refers to the idea that the universe has expanded from a primordial hot and dense singularity some 13.7 billion years ago.
           Big Bang Theory is the model that explains the emergence of matter, energy, space and time.

                  Astrophysicists can not yet explain the emergence of the universe second "zero".  As their starting point is around 10-43 seconds after the original explosion. Now the universe being at a subnuclear size of only 10-33.

             Big Bang started with an extremely dense and pressure phase of the universe. Under these conditions, the universe is dominated by radiationThis tells us that most energy is in the form of protons and other particles with infinitesimal mass, moving at speeds close to that of light.

              As the Big Bang progresses, the temperature decreases rapidly and the particle velocity decreases drastically. Finally, we reach a state of nonrelativistic matter, where it is massive enough to have an average speed well below that of light
             This universe is called a universe dominated by matter. Primary Universe was dominated by radiation but, at present, is dominated by matter. 

        First 1/100 second   
  •  temperature is about 100 billion degrees Celsius and the density is 1 billion higher than that of water.
  •  the universe expands rapidly and is very warm. It consists of a soup of matter and radiation which is in thermal equilibrium.
  • this temperature corresponds to a particle energy of 8.6 MeV.                                                                                                                       

                           Second 1/10 

  •  temperature dropped to about 10 billion degrees Celsius and the density is around 10 million times greater than that of water.
no nucleus can yet form for the temperature implies a particle energy of 2.6 MeV and deuterium has an energy of about 2.2 MeV and therefore can not be stable at such temperature.                                                                                                                                                                                                            First second     
  •   temperature fell to below 10 billion degrees and the universe continues to expand.                                       
                        13,8 seconds

  •  temperature dropped to 3 billion degrees, and the energy of the particles fell to 0.25 MeV ..     Deuterium can not yet be formed and continues to transform neutrons into protons.     
                       3.45 minutes and 45 seconds
  •  temperature finally reached one billion degrees Celsius, enough that deuterium nuclei become stable. Thus begins a chain reaction of formation of deuterium. Deuterium formed reacts with protons to form neutrons and alpha particles.   
                      35 minutes
  •   temperature is 300 million degrees Celsius and the universe is composed of protons, electrons excess, alpha particles, photons, neutrinos and antineutrinos. 
  • atoms cannot yet form for the temperature is too high to keep together the protons and electrons.
                      700.000 yrs
  •  temperature dropped to a few thousand degrees Celsius, and hydrogen atoms begin to form.  
  • until now the matter and radiation were in thermal equilibrium, but now it starts to break, and the light absorbed before starting to cross large distances in space.
  • in a million years after the initial explosion we see dawn of the material, the hydrogen clouds are formed galaxies, stars, and by fusing hydrogen atoms in helium arises as to the other chemical elements carbon and iron.

                       String theory/M theory

                String Thoery  predicts that there is something inside particles, and that something is a small vibrating filament of energy called the chord. Here the elementary particles are composed of strings under excitation. Cords must be stretched under tension, to become excited, but these strings are not attached to a support, they float in space-time. If string theory is a theory of quantum gravity, the average size of a string must be approximately the Planck length.

                   Our universe consists of four dimensions. The rest, up to 11 do not perceive, 6 being wrapped and one to contain the 10. According to string theory, elementary particles are tiny strings vibrating in fact energy, closed or open ends.  Approximate size is 10-35 cm.  
                  As a cello strings can vibrate at different frequencies, generating all the tunes, these strings vibrate, twist and curls in different ways, generating all the elementary particles.


                  M Theory comes with something extra: some of these dimensions might be large, even infinite. Super gravity though had the opportunity to take revenge when physicists tried to save String theory: they added the 11th dimension and the result was surprising. 
                 Strings, which is supposed to underlie matter in the universe, expanded and combined.      Extraordinary conclusion was that all matter in the universe was connected to a single huge structure: membrane.         

                    It was quickly discovered that it stretches to infinity, but is very small in width, it measures one millimeter divided by 10 with 20 zeros behind. 

                 More about the fascinating String Theory... cast your eyes below..


                      Star formation 

                  gravitational contraction - protostar 


                   Size does matter... 

                       Red Giant 


                         3 final stages in star evolution

                      white dwarf -
                    neutron star -  
                     gravitational collapse /black hole -


                          When the innermost iron core cannot fuse any more elements, the core collapses for the final time at a speed of 89 000 km/sec, or one- quarter the speed of light. The temperature of the core rises to a blistering 100 billion degrees C. 
                         The iron sphere that used to be about the size of Earth is now compacted into a sphere only a scant 16 km across. (Earth is about 12.800 km across). The unimaginable heat produces what are called neutrinos, chargless particles which are than trapped inside the iron core. Scientists called this point the ''maximum scrunch'' because the core cannot be compressed anymore, and until nuclei overcome gravity there is a precarious balance between them being held in by gravity and breaking loose of gravity's grasp. 

                 "by environment clean generations"

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